Friday, September 27, 2013

Chapter 4: Infection Control

1.  MSDS stands for Material Safety Data Sheet.  It is information compiled by the manufacturer about its product.  It includes ingredients and storage requirements.

2.  Bacteria are one-celled microorganisms with both plant and animal characteristics; also known as microbes.

3.  The two main classifications of bacteria are nonpathogenic and pathogenic. 

Nonpathogenic bacteria do not cause disease (they help the body breakdown food and protect against infection). 
Pathogenic bacteria may cause disease or infection when they invade the body.

4.  The three forms of pathogenic bacteria are:
  1. Cocci are round-shaped bacteria that appear either singly or in groups (Staphylococci, Streptococci, and Diplococci)
  2. Bacilli are short, rod-shaped bacteria.  They are the most common bacteria and produce diseases such as tetanus, typhoid fever, etc.
  3. Spirilla are spiral or corkscrew-shaped bacteria.
5.  Viruses are different from bacteria because they may only live by penetrating cells and becoming part of them, whereas bacteria may live on their own.

6.  AIDS affects the body by breaking down the immune system.  HIV is spread through blood and other body fluids such as semen and vaginal secretions.  It is not spread by holding hands, kissing, sharing food, or sitting on toilet seats.

7.  A contagious or communicable disease is a disease that is spread or transmitted by contact.

8.  The difference between local and general infection is that a local infection is confined to a particular part of the body, and a general infection is carried in the bloodstream to all parts of the body.

9.  Immunity is the ability of the body to resist disease and prevent infection. 
Natural Immunity is an inherited resistance to disease. 
Acquired immunity is developed after the body overcomes a disease, or through inoculation (such as vaccination).

10.  Decontamination is the removal of pathogens and other substances from tools and surfaces.  The three levels are:
  1. Sanitation- to significantly reduce the number of pathogens or disease-producing organisms found on a surface.
  2. Disinfection- to kill most microorganisms on hard, nonporous surfaces.
  3. Sterilization- to kill all microorganisms, including bacterial.
11.  Three types of disinfectants are:
  1. Quaternary ammonium compounds (quats)- non-toxic, odorless, and fast acting used to disinfect implements usually in 10-15 min.
  2. Phenol- caustic poison that can be safe and effective in disinfecting implements.  It may soften or discolor most rubber and plastic.
  3. Ethyl and Isopropyl alcohol- The strength must be 70% or higher for Ethyl, and at least 99% for alcohol.  Not always legal.
12.  These items may be disinfected in the following ways:
  1. Nonporous implements- Put on gloves and goggles, mix disinfectant (according to directions and adding disinfectant to the water), pre-clean with soap and water, rinse thoroughly and pat dry with clean towel, completely immerse, leave for required time, remove with clean tongs, rinse thoroughly and dry.
  2. Linens- Store in a closed, lined receptacle and wash with bleach.
  3. Electrical tools that cannot be immersed- wipe or spray with an EPA-registered, hospital-grade disinfectant created especially for electrical equipment.
  4. Work surfaces- Before and after performing services on each client, an EPA-registered, hospital-grade disinfectant should be used and left on for directed time.
13.  Six precautions to follow when using disinfectants include:
  1. Always follow manufacturer's recommendations for mixing and using.
  2. Always wear gloves and safety glasses when mixing chemicals with water.
  3. Always add disinfectant to water, not water to disinfectant.
  4. Use tongs, gloves, or a draining basket to remove implements.
  5. Never pour quats, phenol, alcohol, or any other disinfectant over your hands.
  6. Never place any disinfectant or other product in an unmarked container.
14.  To take care of an exposure incident:
  1. Stop the service
  2. Wear gloves
  3. Clean the injured area with an antiseptic
  4. Bandage the cut with an adhesive bandage
  5. Clean your workstation
  6. Discard contaminated objects by double-bagging and using a biohazard sticker
  7. Disinfect tools and implements
  8. Remove your gloves, and wash hands
15.  Universal Precautions are a set of guidelines and controls, published by OSHA, that require the employer and the employee to assume that all human blood and specified human body fluids are infectious for HIV, hepatitis B virus, and other bloodborne pathogens.

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