Monday, November 18, 2013

Chapter 8: Basics of Nutrition

1. A food pyramid is a recommended guideline for foods in food groups that individuals should consume daily.

2. Calories are a measure of heat units. Measures food energy for the body.

3. The three macronutrients are proteins, carbohydrates, and fats.

4. Proteins are chains of amino acid molecules used in all cell functions and body growth. 

5. Carbohydrates are compounds that break down the basic chemical sugars and supply energy for the body.

6. Fat is necessary in the diet because fat helps retain heat, produces the materials in sebaceous glands that lubricate the skin, and lipids are used by the body to make hormones, create cell membranes, and assist in absorption of fat soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K.

7. Micronutrients are vitamins or substances that have no calories and no real nutritional value, yet they are necessary for many nutrients to be properly processed by the body.

8. The fat soluble vitamins are A, D, E, & K.

9. The water soluble vitamins are B and C.

10. Vitamins A, B, and C are antioxidants.

11. Vitamin A is beneficial for the skin because it aids in the functioning and repair of skin cells, is an antioxidant that can help prevent skin cancer, and has been shown to improve the skin's elasticity.

12. The eight B vitamins are:
B complex (niacin)
B1 (thiamine)
B2 (riboflavin)
B6 (pyridoxine)
B7 (biotin)
B12 (cobalamine)
Folic acid (folacin)
B15 (pantothenic acid)

13. The minerals and trace minerals are:

Essential minerals:

Trace minerals:

14. Water is essencial for the body because it sustains cell health, aids in elimination of toxins and waste, and helps regulate body temperature.

15. Vitamin C affects the skin by protecting the body from many forms of oxidation and from problems involving free radicals. It is also needed for proper repair of the skin and tissues. It fights the aging process and promotes collagen production in the dermal tissues.

Thursday, November 7, 2013


You begin a pedicure by pulling out any necessary supplies and preparing a clean and orderly area for the pedicure. 

Supplies Needed:
  • Basin
  • Soak
  • 5-6 clean towels
  • Nail clippers
  • Nail polish remover
  • Esthetic wipes
  • Nail file
  • Cuticle pusher
  • Cuticle remover
  • Nail buffer
  • Foot file
  • Sugar scrub
  • Massage lotion
  • Alcohol
  • Nail polish (including top and bottom coat)

First, put two warm damp towels in a towel warmer.  Second, lay out the nail clippers, nail file, cuticle pusher, foot file, buffer, and a scoop of the sugar scrub in that order from left to right on a towel.  Have a clean towel for the client under the basin, on top of the basin, and on your lap.  Have the client select a nail polish, and excuse yourself to fill up the basin with soak and very warm water (soak first, then water).  Have the client place both feet in the basin, have them check the temperature of the water, and begin nail work.

Nail Work:

Bring one foot out of the water and clip the nails to the client's desired length.  Then file the nails using long even strokes.  One direction is best, but a back and forth motion can be used to bring the nail down to the desired length.  Place the foot back in the water, and repeat on the other side. 

Bring the first foot out of the water again and rub cuticle remover on each nail and on any rough patches of skin.  Use a cuticle pusher to remove any dead skin from the nail and work the cuticle down on each toe.  Then use a buffer to work down any ridges on the nail or extra skin from the cuticle pushing.  Use the foot file to smooth out any rough skin on the heel or toes.  Place the foot back in the water, and repeat on the other side. 

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Remove the first foot again, and use half of the scrub on the foot, and up the leg to the knee.  Use the scrub vigorously on the heel and other tough spots, but lightly on the top of the foot and leg.  Place the foot back in the water and use the water to rinse off any excess scrub.  Repeat on the other side.

Bring both feet out of the water, remove the basin, dry both feet, and place them on the clean towel that was under the basin.  Begin to massage the foot and leg with lotion.  Begin with the leg, working hard on the muscles, and softly over the shin.  Work your way down to the foot and toes.  Don't skip out on the this part, as it is the most enjoyable part for the client.  Massage for at least a good ten minutes.  When you are finished massaging both feet, pull the warm towels out of the heater, and wrap them around the feet.  Make sure they are not too hot for the client, and compress the feet through the towels with your hands.  Let the client enjoy the warm towels while you clean up your supplies and prepare for polish.

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Use alcohol to completely remove all oils and products from the nail.  Paint the nails in the same order each time and do one foot with one coat, and then the other.  Paint the nails with the base coat (make sure to cover the whole nail).  Then begin with the color.  The first coat of color should be thin and slightly streaky looking.  After the second coat of color, use the top coat to work out any flaws.  Don't work the polish too much or you will start to create holes.  Use nail oil on the cuticles, and help the client get their feet into the flip flops.

Chapter 7: Basics of Electricity

1. It is important for estheticians to have a basic understanding of electricity because they use electricity to enhance their work with the skin. Electricity powers machines such as galvanic current, high frequency, and steamers.

2. A conductor is any substance that easily transmits electricity. An insulator is a substance that does not easily transmitted electricity.

3. There are two types of electric current.

Direct current- A constant, even flowing current that travels in one direction only. This includes flashlights, cell phones, and cordless electric drills.

Alternating current- A rapid and interrupted current, flowing first in one direction and then in the opposite direction. Used in hairdryers and curling irons.

4.  Volt: unit that measures pressure or force that pushes the flow of electrons forward through a conductor.
Amp: unit that measures the amount of an electric current (quantity of electrons flowing through a conductor).
Ohm: unit that measures the resistance of an electric current.
Watt: measurement of how much electric energy is being used in one second.

5. You should always look for the UL symbol on electrical devices because Underwriter's Laboratory certifies the safety of electrical appliances.

6. The four main modalities used in esthetics are 

Galvanic- a constant and direct current, having a positive and negative pole, which produces chemical changes when it passes through tissues and fluids of the body.
Faradic- an alternating and interrupted current that produces a mechanical reaction without a chemical effect.
Sinusoidal- alternating current that produces mechanical contractions that tone the muscles.
Tesla high-frequency- a thermal or heat-producing current with a high rate of oscillation or vibration. 

7. In galvanic current, the effects of the poles are as follows:

Positive- produces acidic reactions, closes the pores, soothes the nerves, decreases blood supply, contracts blood vessels, hardens and firms tissues.
Negative- produces alkaline reactions, open the pores, stimulates and irritates the nerves, increases blood supply, expands blood vessels, softens tissues.

8.  Iontophoresis: The process of introducing water-soluble products into the skin with the use of electric current.

Desincrustation: A process which uses the negative pole to soften and emulsify grease deposits and blackheads in the hair follicles.

9. Some benefits of Tesla high-frequency current are:

  • Stimulates blood circulation
  • Improves glandular activity
  • Increases elimination and absorption
  • Increases metabolism
  • Improves germicidal action
  • Relieves congestion

10. Electromagnetic radiation is energy in the form of electromagnetic waves. Also called radiant energy because it carries, or radiates, energy through space on waves.

Visible light is the primary source of light used in facial and scalp treatments.

11. The five main types of light therapy are:
Ultraviolet- used to increase the elimination of waste products, improve the flow of blood and lymph, germicidal and antibacterial effect, produce vitamin D in the skin, and can be used to treat rickets, psoriasis, and acne.
Infrared- used to heat and relax the skin, dilate blood vessels and increase circulation, produce chemical changes, increase metabolism, increase production of perspiration and oil, deep penetration to relieve pain and sore muscles, and soothe nerves.
White light- used to relieve pain in the back of the neck and shoulders, produce some chemical and germicidal effects, and relax muscles.
Blue light- soothes nerves, improves acne, improves skin tone, provides some chemical and germicidal effects, used for mild cases of skin eruptions, produces little heat.
Red light- improves dry, scaly, and wrinkled skin, increases rate of collagen building, relaxes muscles, penetrates the deepest, and produces the most heat.

12. Exposure to ultraviolet rays must be carefully monitored because over exposure can cause skin damage, premature aging, and skin cancer.

13. The acronym laser stands for light amplification stimulation emission of radiation.

Chapter 6: Chemistry

1. Chemistry is the science that deals with the composition, structures, and properties of matter and with how matter changes under different conditions.

2. Organic chemistry is the study of substances that contain carbon and are or once were alive. Inorganic deals with compounds that don't contain a carbon and have never been alive.

3. Matter is any substance that occupies space and has mass (weight).

4. The differences between solids, liquids, and gases deals with the size and shape.  Solids have a definite size and shape; liquids have a definite size but not shape; and gases don't have a definite size or shape.

5.  An element is the simplest form of matter;  cannot be broken down into a simpler substance without loss of identity.

6.  Atoms are the smallest particles of an element that still remain the properties of that element.

7. A molecule is a chemical combination of two or more atoms.

8. A compound is a chemical combination, whereas a mixture is a physical one.

9. Physical properties are those characteristics that can be determined without a chemical reaction and that do not cause a chemical change in the identity of the substance.  Ie: color, odor, melting point, etc. Chemical properties are determined only with a chemical reaction that caused a chemical change in the identity of the substance.

10. Matter can be changed physically or chemically. 

Physical change is a change in the form or physical properties without forming a new substance. An example is when solid ice melts into liquid water.

Chemical change is a change in the chemical composition of a substance, in which a new substance or substances are formed. An example is iron into rust.

11. Hydrogen is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas and is the lightest element known. Elemental hydrogen is flammable and explosive when mixed with air.

Oxygen is the most abundant element found on earth. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas.

Nitrogen is a colorless, gaseous element. It makes up about 4/5 of the air in our atmosphere and is found chiefly in the form of ammonia and nitrates.

12. Water is important for skincare because it replenishes moisture on the surface of the skin, helps keep other ingredients in solution, and helps spread products across the skin.

13. pH (potential hydrogen) is a substance's relative degree of acidity or alkalinity and is measured on a scale of 0 to 14. It is important to know the pH of the product you are working with because extreme variations in pH can damage the skin's barrier function and cause irritation or burns.

14. Oxidation is a chemical reaction that combines a substance with oxygen to produce and oxide.

Reduction is the loss of oxygen from a substance.

15. Solutions are uniform mixtures of two or more mutually mix able substances. They contain particles not visible to the naked eye and are usually transparent. 

Suspensions contain particles visible to the naked eye and are not usually transparent. They usually separate over time. 

Emulsions are suspensions of an unstable mixture of two or more immiscible substances united with the aid of an emulsifier.   Although they may separate over time, properly formulated and stored emulsions should last at least 3 years.

16. Oil-in-water emulsions have droplets of oil surrounded by surfactants with their tails pointing in and heads pointing out.

Water-in-oil emulsions have droplets of water surrounded by surfactants with their heads pointing in and their tails pointing out.

Chapter 5: General Anatomy and Physiology

1.  Anatomy: the study of the structure of the body that can be seen with the naked eye and what it is made up of; The science of the structure of organisms or of their parts.

Physiology: study of the functions or activities performed by the body's structures.

Histology: study of the structure and composition of tissue.

2.  Understanding anatomy, physiology, and histology is important for estheticians so they can develop their skills and perform their work safely.

3. The basic structures of the cell are:

The nucleus: the center of a cell. It holds the DNA and proteins.
The cytoplasm: watery fluid that contains the food material necessary for cell growth, reproduction, and self repair.
The cell membrane: encloses the protoplasm and permits soluble substances to enter and leave the cell.

4. Cell metabolism is a chemical process that takes place in living organisms. Through metabolism, the cells are nourished and carry out their activities

5.  The four types of tissue in the body are:

Connective tissue: supports, protects, and binds together other tissues of the body. I.e.: bone, cartilage, and ligaments.
Epithelial tissue: is a protective covering on body surfaces; for example, skin.
Muscular tissue: contracts and moves the various parts of the body.
Nerve tissue: carries messages to and from the brain and controls and coordinates all bodily functions. Nerve tissue is composed of special cells known as neurons.

6.  Organs are groups of tissues designed to perform a specific function.

7.  The most important organs in the body are:

Brain: controls the body.
Eyes: control vision.
Heart: circulates the blood.
Kidneys: excrete water and waste products.
Lungs: supply oxygen to the blood.
Liver: removes toxic products of digestion.
Skin: forms external protective covering of the body.
Stomach and intestines: digest food.

8.  The 11 main body systems are:

Circulatory: controls the steady circulation of blood through the body by means of the heart and blood vessels.
Digestive: changes food into nutrients and wastes.
Endocrine: affects the growth, development, sexual activities, and health of the entire body.
Excretory: purifies the body by the elimination of waste matter.
Integumentary: serves as a protective covering and helps the body in regulating the body's temperature. Consists of skin, accessory organs such as oil sweat glands, sensory receptors, hair, and nails.
Muscular: covers, shapes, and supports the skeleton tissue. Also contracts and moves various parts of the body.
Nervous: controls and coordinates all other systems and makes them work harmoniously and efficiently.
Reproductive: responsible for processes by which plants and animals produce offspring.
Respiratory: enables breathing, supplying the body with oxygen, and eliminating carbon dioxide as a waste product.
Skeletal: physical foundation of the body.
Lymphatic or immune: protects the body from disease by developing immunities and destroying disease-causing microorganisms.

9.  The primary functions of the skeletal system are to:

  • Give shape and support to the body.
  • Protect various internal structures and organs.
  • Serves as attachments for muscles and act as levers to produce body movement.
  • Help produce both white and red blood cells.
  • Store most of the body's calcium supply as well as phosphorus, magnesium, sodium.

10.  The three types of muscle tissue found in the body are:

Striated muscles: skeletal or voluntary muscles that are attached to the bones and make up a large percentage of body mass.
Non-striated muscles: involuntary, visceral, or smooth muscles. Function automatically without conscious will. These muscles are found in the digestive and circulatory systems.
Cardiac muscle: the involuntary muscle that makes up the heart.

11.  The three types of nerves found in the body are:

Sensory or afferent nerves: carry impulses or messages from the sense organs to the brain. Where sensations of touch, cold, heat, sight, hearing, taste, smell, pain, and pressure are experienced.
Motor or efferent nerves: carry impulses from the brain to the muscles. The transmitted impulses produce movement.
Mixed nerves: contain both sensory and motor fibers and have the ability to send and receive messages.

12.  The three types of blood vessels found in the body are:

Arteries: are thick-walled, muscular, flexible tubes that carry oxygenated blood away from the heart to the capillaries.
Capillaries: are minute, thin-walled blood vessels that connect the smallest arteries to the veins. They bring nutrients to the cells and carry away waste materials.
Veins: are thin-walled blood vessels that are less elastic than arteries. They carry blood containing waste products from the various capillaries back to the heart.

13.  The components of blood are:

Red blood cells: produced in the red bone marrow. They contain hemoglobin, a complex iron protein that gives the blood its bright red color. The function of red blood cells is to carry oxygen to the body cells.
White blood cells: perform the function of destroying disease causing germs.
Platelets: contribute to the blood clotting process, which stops bleeding.
Plasma: the fluid part of the blood in which the red and white blood cells and platelets flow. It is about 90% water and contains proteins, sugars, and oxygen. The main function of plasma is to carry food and secretions to the cells and to take carbon dioxide away from the cells.

14.  The two types of glands that make up the endocrine system are:

Exocrine glands or duct: sweat and oil glands of the skin be long to this group.
Endocrine glands or ductless: release secretions called hormones directly into the bloodstream.

15.  The organs in the excretory system are:

Kidneys: excrete urine.
Liver: discharges bile.
Skin: eliminates perspiration.
Large intestine: eliminates decomposed and undigested food.
Lungs: exhale carbon dioxide.