Monday, November 18, 2013

Chapter 8: Basics of Nutrition

1. A food pyramid is a recommended guideline for foods in food groups that individuals should consume daily.

2. Calories are a measure of heat units. Measures food energy for the body.

3. The three macronutrients are proteins, carbohydrates, and fats.

4. Proteins are chains of amino acid molecules used in all cell functions and body growth. 

5. Carbohydrates are compounds that break down the basic chemical sugars and supply energy for the body.

6. Fat is necessary in the diet because fat helps retain heat, produces the materials in sebaceous glands that lubricate the skin, and lipids are used by the body to make hormones, create cell membranes, and assist in absorption of fat soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K.

7. Micronutrients are vitamins or substances that have no calories and no real nutritional value, yet they are necessary for many nutrients to be properly processed by the body.

8. The fat soluble vitamins are A, D, E, & K.

9. The water soluble vitamins are B and C.

10. Vitamins A, B, and C are antioxidants.

11. Vitamin A is beneficial for the skin because it aids in the functioning and repair of skin cells, is an antioxidant that can help prevent skin cancer, and has been shown to improve the skin's elasticity.

12. The eight B vitamins are:
B complex (niacin)
B1 (thiamine)
B2 (riboflavin)
B6 (pyridoxine)
B7 (biotin)
B12 (cobalamine)
Folic acid (folacin)
B15 (pantothenic acid)

13. The minerals and trace minerals are:

Essential minerals:

Trace minerals:

14. Water is essencial for the body because it sustains cell health, aids in elimination of toxins and waste, and helps regulate body temperature.

15. Vitamin C affects the skin by protecting the body from many forms of oxidation and from problems involving free radicals. It is also needed for proper repair of the skin and tissues. It fights the aging process and promotes collagen production in the dermal tissues.

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