Friday, January 31, 2014

Chapter 13: The Treatment Room

1. It is important to create a professional atmosphere in a salon.

2. Room esthetics are important because your first impression to a client is a key factor in your success.

3. The two most important considerations in preparing and cleaning the room are:
  • The services you will perform and how you will work at the station
  • how comfortable the client will be in the facial chair.
4. The essential equipment you need for facials includes:
  • Facial bed
  • Esthetician's chair
  • Towel Warmer
  • Magnifying lamp or light
  • Steamer
  • Step stool
  • Utility cart
  • Machines (ie: Galvanic)
  • Wax heater
  • Waste container- closed and covered
  • Laundry hamper- closed and covered
  • Sharps container
5. It takes approximately 15 minutes to set up for a facial.

6. Ergonomically correct means that furniture and body positions are healthy for body and spine.

7. Soiled disposable gloves and extraction supplies go in a sealable plastic bag, and then in the appropriate waste container (ie: lancets and needles in a biohazard/sharps container).

8. The following steps are used to properly disinfect implements:
  • Wash implements thoroughly with antibacterial soap and dry.
  • Place implements in the disinfectant according to the manufacturer's instructions.
  • Rinse, dry, and put them away in a covered container.
9. The following are steps involved in cleaning the room or workstation at the end of the day:
  • Prepare the room, and check the schedule for the next workday
  • Use a clean-up checklist to make sure you did not forget anything
  • Turn off all equipment
  • Refill all containers, wax supplies, and the steamer
  • Check floors; sweep or mop as required.  Check for wax spills
  • Empty waste containers.  Replace with clean trash liners
  • Remove personal items from the area
  • Leave the hot cabbie door open to dry, and empty the tray underneath before sanitizing it
  • Clean anything that has not been cleaned  after the last service, including the bed, counters, and doorknobs.
10. An SMA (sanitary maintenance area) is an area kept clean for setup of procedure implements and supplies; for example, an SMA can be a towel on the workstation.

Monday, January 20, 2014

Chapter 12: Skin Care Products

1. The FDA defines cosmetics as: articles that are intended to be rubbed, poured, sprinkled or otherwise applied to the human body or any part thereof for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness or altering the appearance.

2.  The difference between functional and cosmetic ingredients is that functional ingredients make up the body, texture, or spreadability of the product, and performance ingredients cause the changes in appearance.

3.  Water has two purposes in cosmetic formulations:
  • Vehicle: helps other ingredients stay in the solution and help spread products across the skin.
  • Performance: replenishes moisture.
4. Emollients are fatty material used to lubricate, moisturize, and prevent water loss.

5. Two basic categories of oils used in skin care products are oils from the earth (mineral oil and petrolatum) and oils from plants.

6. Three other emollients, besides oils are:
  • Fatty Acids: lubricant ingredients that are not irritating like other acids.  Examples: oleic acid, stearic acid, and caprylic acid.
  • Fatty Alcohols: Acids that have been exposed to hydrogen.  They are not drying and have a wax like consistency and are used as emollients or spreading agents.  Examples: cetyl alcohol, lauryl alcohol, and stearyl alcohol.
  • Fatty Esters: produced from fatty acids and alcohols.  Almost always end in -ate and often feel better than natural oils and lubricate more evenly.  Examples: isopropyl myristate, isopropyl palmitate, and glyceryl stearate.
  • Silicones: group of oils chemically combined with silicon and oxygen and leave a noncomedogenic protective film on the surface of the skin.   .  They are excellent protectants, helping to keep moisture trapped in the skin yet allowing oxygen in and out of the follicles.  Silicones also add an elegant, non-greasy feel to products.  Examples: dimethicone, cyclomethicone, and phenyl trimethicone. Often found in sunscreens, foundation, and moisturizers.
7. Comedogenicity means the tendency of any topical substance to cause or to worsen a buildup in the follicle, leading to the development of a comedo (blackhead).

8.  Essential oils are oils derived from herbs; have many different properties and effects on the skin and psyche.

9.  Preservatives are necessary in cosmetic products because they prevent bacteria and other microorganisms from living in a product.

10. The function of humectants in skin care products is to draw moisture to the skin and soften its surface, diminishing lines caused by dryness. Glycerin is a humectant used in creams and lotions.

11. Four products that slow the appearance of aging in the skin are:
  • Ceramides: Lipid materials found in skin's intercellular cement; a natural moisturizing factor; products help lipid replacement and combat dryness, aging, and dehydration.
  • Retinoic acid: A vitamin A derivative, retinoic acid has demonstrated an ability to alter collagen synthesis.  It is used to treat acne and visible signs of aging.  Side effects are irritation, photosensitivity, skin dryness, redness, and peeling.
  • Titanium dioxide: An inorganic sunscreen that reflects UVA rays.  When applied, it remains on the skin surface, basically scattering UV light.
  • Hydroquinone: Slows down the pigment factories in the skin, known as melanocytes, thus blocking the production of melanin.
  • Peptides: stimulate fibroblasts (the cells that produce collagen) to improve skin firmness and soften wrinkles.
12. The two main types of sunscreens are
  • Chemical: organic compounds that chemically absorb ultraviolet rays.
  • Physical: inorganic compounds that physically reflect ultraviolet rays.
13. The FDA regulates cosmetics only in the areas of safety, labeling, and the claims made for a product.

14. The symptoms of an allergic reaction to a product include inflammation of the skin, burning or itching, blisters, blotches, or rashes.  The eyes may swell, puff, or produce tears.

15. The two main product components that cause the most allergic reactions are fragrances and preservatives.

16. Five examples of antioxidant ingredients are Vitamins C and E, green tea, DMAE, and grape seed extract.

17. Four ingredients beneficial for mature or aging skin are seaweed, chamomile, allantoin, and rose essential oil.

18. Two ingredients beneficial for acne are salicylic acid and benzyl peroxide.

19. Two ingredients beneficial for sensitive skin are

20. The main categories of professional skin care products are: cleansers, toners, exfoliants, masks, hydrators & moisturizers, serums & ampoules, and sunscreens.

21. The benefits of using toners are:
  • they remove residue left behind by cleansers or other products
  • restore the skin's natural pH after cleansing, and they hydrate the skin
  • have a temporary tightening effect on both the skin and follicle openings
  • Some products can help certain skin conditions, depending on the ingredients.
22. The two categories of exfoliants are:
  • Chemical- dead skin cells and the intercellular 'glue' that holds them together, are dissolved by chemical agents such as AHA's.
  • Mechanical- is a method of physically rubbing dead cells off of the skin such as granular scrubs.
23. Some benefits of exfoliation are:
  • Skin texture is smoother and softer
  • Follicle openings are cleaner
  • Deep pore cleansing and extraction are easier.
  • The cell turnover rate is increased, bringing new cells to the surface more rapidly.
  • The skin's ability to retain moisture and lipids is improved.
  • Product penetration is improved, and delivery of ingredients into the epidermis is more effective.
  • Blood flow and circulation are stimulated
  • Makeup application is smoother and more even.
24. The benefits of a mask include:
  • tighten and tone the skin
  • draw impurities out of the pores
  • clear up blemishes
  • hydrate
  • nourish
  • calm and soothe
  • rejuvenate the skin
  • brighten the complexion
25. The difference between a physical sunscreen and a chemical sunscreen is that physical sunscreens physically reflect UV rays and chemical sunscreens absorb them.

26. SPF refers to the sun protection factor.

27. Sunscreen is important because sun exposure leads to skin cancer as well as aging, hyperpigmentation, capillary damage, free radical damage, and collagen and elastin deterioration.

28. The steps in a good daily skin care routine are:
  • Cleanser
  • Toner
  • Serums/Eye cream
  • Moisturizer
  • Sunscreen
29. Moisturizers are necessary to help nourish and protect the skin.

30. Considerations that are important in choosing product lines are:
  • Are the ingredients high quality and beneficial?
  • Are the products versatile- effective for all skin types?
  • Are the wholesale cost and the retail pricing affordable?
  • Is the product name recognizable and reputable?
  • How are the products packaged?
  • What fragrances are used?
  • What can clients in your area afford?
  • What support can you anticipate from the company or supplier?
  • What educational opportunities and training are provided?

Monday, January 6, 2014

Chapter 11: Skin Analysis

1. All skin types are genetic.

2. The five skin types are: dry, normal, combination, oily, and sensitive.

3. The difference between dehydrated skin and dry skin is that dehydrated skin lacks water, and dry skin lacks oil.

4. The Fitzpatrick scale is a scale used to measure the skin type's ability to tolerate sun exposure.

5. Six of the most common skin conditions are:
  • adult acne
  • actinic aging from sun damage
  • problems from hormonal fluctuations
  • dehydration
  • pigmentation disorders
  • rosacea.
6. A skin condition is different from a skin type because it is affected by both internal and external factors, and is not just a result of our genetic makeup.

7. Some internal factors affecting the skin are free radicals in the body, genetics, stress, lack of exercise, lack of sleep, medications, dehydration, vitamin deficiency, improper nutrition, alcohol, caffeine, and hormones.

8. Some external factors affecting the skin are sun damage, environmental exposure, humidity, poor maintenance and care, misuse of products or treatments, and allergies.

9. Some healthy habits for the skin include: avoiding the sun and wearing sunscreen, using proper ingredients, a good diet, vitamins, water intake, exercise, and positive thinking.

10. The main cause of premature extrinsic aging is sun exposure.

11. The difference between UVA rays and UVB rays is that UVA rays have longer wavelengths that penetrate deeper into the dermis then UVB rays. UVA rays are also less energetic and affect the dermis, collagen, and elastin. They can also cause DNA damage leading to skin cancer. UVB rays are the main cause of sunburns and skin cancers.

12. Five contradictions for skin treatments are:
  • Use of Accutane or any skin-thinning or exfoliating drug.
  • Pregnancy
  • Metal bone pins or plates in the body.
  • Pacemakers or heart irregularities.
  • Autoimmune diseases or diabetes.

13. The steps to a skin analysis are:

Preparation- prepare the bed and room. Set out the supplies and products on a sanitary maintenance area (SMA). Preparing the client and cover the hair.

Procedure- look briefly at the clients skin with your naked eye or magnifying light. Cleanse the skin. Use a magnifying light to examine the skin more thoroughly. Look closely at the client's skin type, and the conditions present and the appearance. Also touch the skin with the fingertips to feel it's texture. Conduct a brief consultation while continuing to analyze with the magnifying lamp. Ask questions relating to the skins appearance and the client's personal health. Discuss what you see with the client. Choose products for treatment and home care. Record the information on the client's chart at the appropriate time.

Clean-up- follow the aseptic procedure to avoid contamination.

Chapter 10: Disorders and Diseases of the Skin

1. The nine primary lesions are:

Bulla: a large blister containing watery fluid. It is similar to a vesicle, but larger.

Cyst: a closed, abnormally developed sac containing fluid, infection, or other matter above or below the skin. An acne cyst is one type of cyst.

Macule: a flat spot or discoloration on the skin, such as a freckle. Macules are neither raised not sunken. 

Nodules: these are often referred to as tumors, but they are smaller bumps caused by conditions such as scar tissue, fatty deposits, or infections.

Papule: a small elevation on the skin that contains no fluid, but may develop into a pustule. 

Pustule: an inflamed Papule with a white or yellow center containing pus, a fluid consisting of white blood cells, bacteria, and other debris produced from an infection.

Tubercle: An abnormal rounded, solid lump, larger than a papule.

Vesicles: A small blister or sac containing clear fluid. Poison ivy and poison oak produce vesicles.

Wheal: An itchy, swollen lesion caused by a blow, insect bite, skin allergy reaction, or stings.  Hives and mosquito bites are wheals.

2. A Comedone is an open comedo or blackhead; a mass of hardened sebum and skin cells in a hair follicle.  When the follicle is filled with an excess of oil, a blackhead forms.  It is dark because it is exposed to oxygen and oxidizes.  Closed comedones do not have a follicular opening and are called milia or whiteheads.

3. The secondary lesions are:

Crust: Dead cells formed over a wound or blemish while it is healing, resulting in an accumulation of sebum and pus, sometimes mixed with epidermal material.  An example is the scab on a sore.

Excoriation: A skin sore or abrasion produced by scratching or scraping.

Acne exoriee: A disorder where clients purposely scrape off acne lesions, causing scarring and discoloration.

Fissure: A crack in the skin that may penetrate into the dermis.  Chapped lips or hands are fissures.

Keloid: A thick scar resulting from excessive growth of fibrous tissue (collagen).  Keloids are usually genetically predisposed and may occur following an injury or surgery.

Scale: Shredding of dead skin cells; flaky skin cells; any thin plate of epidermal flakes, dry or oily.  ie: dandruff.

Scar: Light-colored, slightly raised mark on the skin formed after an injury or lesion of the skin has healed.  The tissue hardens to heal the injury.  Thick, elevated scars are hypertrophic, like a keloid.

Ulcer: An open lesion on the skin or mucous membrane of the body, accompanied by pus and loss of skin depth.  A deep erosion or depression in the skin, normally due to infection or cancer.

4. Six sebaceous glands are:

Acne: A chronic inflammatory skin disorder of the sebaceous glands characterized by comedones and blemishes.  Also know as acne simplex or acne vulgaris.  Skin disorder characterized by chronic inflammation of the sebaceous glands from retained secretions and Propionibacterium acnes bacteria.

Asteatosis: Dry, scaly skin from sebum deficiency; can be due to aging, body disorders, alkalies of harsh soaps, or cold exposure.

Comedone: A non-inflamed buildup of cells, sebum, and other debris inside follicles.  An open comedo is a blackhead; when the follicle is filled with an excess of oil, a blackhead forms.  It is dark because it is exposed to oxygen and oxidation occurs.  A closed comedo is also referred to as a whitehead but should not be confused with the more hardened whitehead called milia.

Milia: Whitish, pearl-like masses of sebum and dead cells under the skin with no visible opening.

Sebaceous Hyperplasia:  Benign lesions frequently seen in oilier areas of the face.  These overgrowths of the sebaceous gland appear similar to open comedones.  They are often doughnut-shaped, with sebaceous material in the center.  They cannot be removed by extraction, only surgically.

Seborrhea: Severe oiliness of the skin; an abnormal secretion from the sebaceous glands.

5. Six inflammations of the skin are:

Atopic dermatitis: Atopic dermatitis is a rash. The redness, itching, and dehydration of the dermatitis make the condition worse.  Use of humidifiers and lotion can help keep the skin more hydrated.  Topical corticosteroids can relieve the symptoms.

Dermatitis: An inflammatory condition of the skin, various forms of which include lesions, such as eczema, vesicles, or papules.

Eczema: An inflammatory, painful, itching disease of the skin, acute or chronic in nature, with dry or moist lesions. This should be referred to a physician. A common form of eczema, seborrheic dermatitis, mainly affects oily areas.  Avoid contact and skin care treatments if a client has eczema.

Edema: Swelling from a fluid imbalance in the cells or from a response to injury or infection.

Psoriasis: A skin disease characterized by red patches covered with white-silver scales.  Caused by an overproliferation of skin cells that replicate too fast.  Psoriasis is usually found in patches on the scalp, elbows, knees, chest, and lower back. If patches are irritated, bleeding can occur. Psoriasis is not contagious buy can be spread by irritating the affected area.

Rosacea: An inflammation for the skin characterized by redness, dilation of blood vessels, and in severe cases the formation of papules and pustules.  It is chronic congestion primarily on the cheeks and nose.  The cause and treatment of rosacea is a primary concern of skin care today.  The cause is unknown, but may be due to heredity, bacteria, mites, or fungus.  Certain factors are known to aggravate the condition.  Vascular dilation of the blood vessels makes it worse.  Spicy foods, alcohol, caffeine, exposure to temperature extremes, heat, sun, and stress aggravate rosacea.  Soothing and calming ingredients and treatments will help calm the skin and decrease the inflammation.

6. Rosacea is an inflammation for the skin characterized by redness, dilation of blood vessels, and in severe cases the formation of papules and pustules.  It is chronic congestion primarily on the cheeks and nose.  The cause and treatment of rosacea is a primary concern of skin care today.  The cause is unknown, but may be due to heredity, bacteria, mites, or fungus.  Certain factors are known to aggravate the condition.  Vascular dilation of the blood vessels makes it worse.  Spicy foods, alcohol, caffeine, exposure to temperature extremes, heat, sun, and stress aggravate rosacea.  Soothing and calming ingredients and treatments will help calm the skin and decrease the inflammation.

7. Three types of Hyperpigmentation are:

Melasma: Pregnancy mask, often called melisma, is triggered by hormonal changes and may fade with time. 

Stain: Brown or wine-colored discoloration.  Stains occur after certain diseases or after moles, freckles, or liver spots disappear.  A port wine stain is a birthmark, which is a vascular type of nevus.

Tan: Exposure to the sun causes tanning, a change in pigmentation sue to melanin production as a defense against UV rays that damage the skin.

8.  Hypertrophy is an abnormal growth; many are benign, or harmless.

9. Three types of skin cancer are:

Basal Cell carcinoma: most common and the least severe type of carcinoma.  It often appears as light pearly nodules.  Sometimes blood vessels run through the nodules.  Basal cells do not spread as easily as squamous or melanoma cells.  They can be easily removed by surgery or other medical procedures.

Squamous cell carcinoma: is a more serious condition than basal cell carcinoma.  It is characterized by red or pink scaly papules or nodules.  Sometimes they are characterized by open sores or crusty areas that do not heal and may bleed easily.  Squamous cell carcinoma can spread to other areas of the body.

Malignant Melanoma: The most serious.  Black or dark patches on the skin.  It is the most deadly because it can spread throughout the body.

10. The system used to detect cancer is the ABCDE's. 

A- asymmetry
B- Border
C- Color
D- Diameter
E- Evolution

11. Four types of contagious diseases are:

Bacterial Conjuctivitis: commonly called pinkeye; very contagious.

Herpes zoster: Shingles, a painful skin condition from the chickenpox virus; characterized by groups of blisters that form a rash.

Impetigo: A bacterial infection of the skin that often occurs in children; characterized by clusters of small blisters or crusty lesions filled with bacteria.  It is extremely contagious.

Verruca: Warts.  Hypertrophy of the papillae and epidermis caused by a virus. Infectious and contagious, verrucas can spread.  Wear gloves and avoid contact with warts.

12. Some of the causes of acne include:
  • genetics/heredity
  • clogged pores
  • bacteria
  • triggers including hormones, stress, cosmetics and skin care products, and foods.
13. Some things that may trigger an acne flare-up are
  • hormonal changes
  • stress
  • products
  • certain foods
  • climate
  • friction
  • medications
14. The four grades of acne are:

Grade I: Minor breakouts, mostly open comedones, some closed comedones, and a few papules.
Grade II: Many closed comedones, more open comedones, and occasional papules and pustules.
Grade III: Red and inflamed, many comedones, papules and pustules.
Grade IV: Cystic acne.  Cysts with comedones, papules, pustules, and inflammation are present.  Scar formation from tissue damage is common.

Chapter 9: Physiology and Histology of the Skin

1. The six functions of the skin are protection, sensation, heat regulation, excretion, secretion, and absorption.

2. The barrier function is the protective barrier of the epidermis. The corneum and intercellular cement protect the surface from irritation and dehydration.

3. Sebum is important because it provides protection for the epidermis from external factors and lubricates both the skin and hair.

4. The skin protects itself using the acid mantle, self-healing, and melanin.

The acid mantle is the protective barrier made up of sebum, lipids, sweat, and water that form a hydrolipidic film to protect the skin from drying out and from exposure to external factors.

The skin can heal itself through a hyper production of cells and blood clotting.

The skin also produces melanin, the pigment that protects us from the sun.

5. Hair follicles, sweat glands, and blood vessels help with heat regulation in the skin. Hair follicles and sweat glands dissipate heat and cause evaporation to help cool the body. Blood vessel dilation assists in cooling the body. Constriction of the blood vessels and decreasing blood flow protects the body from cold.   The body's fat layers also help to insulate and warm the body.

6. The skin is comprised of two parts.

The epidermis is the outermost layer that contains five layers of the skin.

The dermis is the live layer of connective tissues below the epidermis. The dermis has two layers.

7.  The layers of the epidermis are the stratum corneum, stratum lucidum, stratum granulosum, stratum spinosum, and stratum germinativum.

8. The layers of the dermis are the papillary layer and the reticular layer.

9. Collagen is a fibrous, connective tissue made from protein that is found in the reticular layer of the dermis. Collagen gives skin its firmness. Topically it is a large, long-chain molecular protein that lies on the top of the skin and binds water. Derived from the placentas of cows or other sources.

10. Elasticity is important to the skin because it keeps the skin from sagging, wrinkling, and aging.

11. Melanocytes are cells that produce pigment granules in the basal layer.

12. Skin gets its nourishment from blood and lymph.

Blood supplies nutrients and oxygen to the skin.

Lymph bathes the skin cells, removes the toxins and cellular waste.

Topical products can also nourish the epidermis. 

13. The three types of nerve fibers are:
Motor nerve fibers- stimulate muscles such as the at rector pili muscles.
Sensory nerve fibers- send messages to the brain to react to heat, cold, pain, pressure, and touch.
Secretory nerve fibers- dispersed to sweat and oil glands. They regulate excretion from the sweat glands and control sebum output to the surface of the skin.

14. The body replaces billions of cells each day.

15. Skin gets its color from the pigment produced by melanocytes.  Melanocytes are cells that produce pigment granules called melanosomes. Melanosomes produce a complex protein called Melanin, which determines hair and skin color.

16. The two main glands associated with the skin are the Sebaceous glands (connected the the hair follicles and produce oil) and the Sudoriferous glands (regulate body temperature and eliminate waste products by excreting sweat).

17. The two types of sweat glands are the apocrine glands (attached to hair follicles under the arms and in the genital area) and the eccrine glands (all over the body and more active during physical activity). 

18. Free radicals are oxygen atoms or molecules with unpaired electrons that cause oxidation. They steal electrons from other molecules, which damages the other molecules.