2. The difference between functional and cosmetic ingredients is that functional ingredients make up the body, texture, or spreadability of the product, and performance ingredients cause the changes in appearance.
3. Water has two purposes in cosmetic formulations:
- Vehicle: helps other ingredients stay in the solution and help spread products across the skin.
- Performance: replenishes moisture.
5. Two basic categories of oils used in skin care products are oils from the earth (mineral oil and petrolatum) and oils from plants.
6. Three other emollients, besides oils are:
- Fatty Acids: lubricant ingredients that are not irritating like other acids. Examples: oleic acid, stearic acid, and caprylic acid.
- Fatty Alcohols: Acids that have been exposed to hydrogen. They are not drying and have a wax like consistency and are used as emollients or spreading agents. Examples: cetyl alcohol, lauryl alcohol, and stearyl alcohol.
- Fatty Esters: produced from fatty acids and alcohols. Almost always end in -ate and often feel better than natural oils and lubricate more evenly. Examples: isopropyl myristate, isopropyl palmitate, and glyceryl stearate.
- Silicones: group of oils chemically combined with silicon and oxygen and leave a noncomedogenic protective film on the surface of the skin. . They are excellent protectants, helping to keep moisture trapped in the skin yet allowing oxygen in and out of the follicles. Silicones also add an elegant, non-greasy feel to products. Examples: dimethicone, cyclomethicone, and phenyl trimethicone. Often found in sunscreens, foundation, and moisturizers.
8. Essential oils are oils derived from herbs; have many different properties and effects on the skin and psyche.
9. Preservatives are necessary in cosmetic products because they prevent bacteria and other microorganisms from living in a product.
10. The function of humectants in skin care products is to draw moisture to the skin and soften its surface, diminishing lines caused by dryness. Glycerin is a humectant used in creams and lotions.
11. Four products that slow the appearance of aging in the skin are:
- Ceramides: Lipid materials found in skin's intercellular cement; a natural moisturizing factor; products help lipid replacement and combat dryness, aging, and dehydration.
- Retinoic acid: A vitamin A derivative, retinoic acid has demonstrated an ability to alter collagen synthesis. It is used to treat acne and visible signs of aging. Side effects are irritation, photosensitivity, skin dryness, redness, and peeling.
- Titanium dioxide: An inorganic sunscreen that reflects UVA rays. When applied, it remains on the skin surface, basically scattering UV light.
- Hydroquinone: Slows down the pigment factories in the skin, known as melanocytes, thus blocking the production of melanin.
- Peptides: stimulate fibroblasts (the cells that produce collagen) to improve skin firmness and soften wrinkles.
- Chemical: organic compounds that chemically absorb ultraviolet rays.
- Physical: inorganic compounds that physically reflect ultraviolet rays.
14. The symptoms of an allergic reaction to a product include inflammation of the skin, burning or itching, blisters, blotches, or rashes. The eyes may swell, puff, or produce tears.
15. The two main product components that cause the most allergic reactions are fragrances and preservatives.
16. Five examples of antioxidant ingredients are Vitamins C and E, green tea, DMAE, and grape seed extract.
17. Four ingredients beneficial for mature or aging skin are seaweed, chamomile, allantoin, and rose essential oil.
18. Two ingredients beneficial for acne are salicylic acid and benzyl peroxide.
19. Two ingredients beneficial for sensitive skin are
20. The main categories of professional skin care products are: cleansers, toners, exfoliants, masks, hydrators & moisturizers, serums & ampoules, and sunscreens.
21. The benefits of using toners are:
- they remove residue left behind by cleansers or other products
- restore the skin's natural pH after cleansing, and they hydrate the skin
- have a temporary tightening effect on both the skin and follicle openings
- Some products can help certain skin conditions, depending on the ingredients.
- Chemical- dead skin cells and the intercellular 'glue' that holds them together, are dissolved by chemical agents such as AHA's.
- Mechanical- is a method of physically rubbing dead cells off of the skin such as granular scrubs.
- Skin texture is smoother and softer
- Follicle openings are cleaner
- Deep pore cleansing and extraction are easier.
- The cell turnover rate is increased, bringing new cells to the surface more rapidly.
- The skin's ability to retain moisture and lipids is improved.
- Product penetration is improved, and delivery of ingredients into the epidermis is more effective.
- Blood flow and circulation are stimulated
- Makeup application is smoother and more even.
- tighten and tone the skin
- draw impurities out of the pores
- clear up blemishes
- calm and soothe
- rejuvenate the skin
- brighten the complexion
26. SPF refers to the sun protection factor.
27. Sunscreen is important because sun exposure leads to skin cancer as well as aging, hyperpigmentation, capillary damage, free radical damage, and collagen and elastin deterioration.
28. The steps in a good daily skin care routine are:
- Serums/Eye cream
30. Considerations that are important in choosing product lines are:
- Are the ingredients high quality and beneficial?
- Are the products versatile- effective for all skin types?
- Are the wholesale cost and the retail pricing affordable?
- Is the product name recognizable and reputable?
- How are the products packaged?
- What fragrances are used?
- What can clients in your area afford?
- What support can you anticipate from the company or supplier?
- What educational opportunities and training are provided?