Bulla: a large blister containing watery fluid. It is similar to a vesicle, but larger.
Cyst: a closed, abnormally developed sac containing fluid, infection, or other matter above or below the skin. An acne cyst is one type of cyst.
Macule: a flat spot or discoloration on the skin, such as a freckle. Macules are neither raised not sunken.
Nodules: these are often referred to as tumors, but they are smaller bumps caused by conditions such as scar tissue, fatty deposits, or infections.
Papule: a small elevation on the skin that contains no fluid, but may develop into a pustule.
Tubercle: An abnormal rounded, solid lump, larger than a papule.
Vesicles: A small blister or sac containing clear fluid. Poison ivy and poison oak produce vesicles.
Wheal: An itchy, swollen lesion caused by a blow, insect bite, skin allergy reaction, or stings. Hives and mosquito bites are wheals.
2. A Comedone is an open comedo or blackhead; a mass of hardened sebum and skin cells in a hair follicle. When the follicle is filled with an excess of oil, a blackhead forms. It is dark because it is exposed to oxygen and oxidizes. Closed comedones do not have a follicular opening and are called milia or whiteheads.
3. The secondary lesions are:
Crust: Dead cells formed over a wound or blemish while it is healing, resulting in an accumulation of sebum and pus, sometimes mixed with epidermal material. An example is the scab on a sore.
Excoriation: A skin sore or abrasion produced by scratching or scraping.
Acne exoriee: A disorder where clients purposely scrape off acne lesions, causing scarring and discoloration.
Fissure: A crack in the skin that may penetrate into the dermis. Chapped lips or hands are fissures.
Keloid: A thick scar resulting from excessive growth of fibrous tissue (collagen). Keloids are usually genetically predisposed and may occur following an injury or surgery.
Scale: Shredding of dead skin cells; flaky skin cells; any thin plate of epidermal flakes, dry or oily. ie: dandruff.
Scar: Light-colored, slightly raised mark on the skin formed after an injury or lesion of the skin has healed. The tissue hardens to heal the injury. Thick, elevated scars are hypertrophic, like a keloid.
Ulcer: An open lesion on the skin or mucous membrane of the body, accompanied by pus and loss of skin depth. A deep erosion or depression in the skin, normally due to infection or cancer.
4. Six sebaceous glands are:
Acne: A chronic inflammatory skin disorder of the sebaceous glands characterized by comedones and blemishes. Also know as acne simplex or acne vulgaris. Skin disorder characterized by chronic inflammation of the sebaceous glands from retained secretions and Propionibacterium acnes bacteria.
Asteatosis: Dry, scaly skin from sebum deficiency; can be due to aging, body disorders, alkalies of harsh soaps, or cold exposure.
Comedone: A non-inflamed buildup of cells, sebum, and other debris inside follicles. An open comedo is a blackhead; when the follicle is filled with an excess of oil, a blackhead forms. It is dark because it is exposed to oxygen and oxidation occurs. A closed comedo is also referred to as a whitehead but should not be confused with the more hardened whitehead called milia.
Milia: Whitish, pearl-like masses of sebum and dead cells under the skin with no visible opening.
Sebaceous Hyperplasia: Benign lesions frequently seen in oilier areas of the face. These overgrowths of the sebaceous gland appear similar to open comedones. They are often doughnut-shaped, with sebaceous material in the center. They cannot be removed by extraction, only surgically.
Seborrhea: Severe oiliness of the skin; an abnormal secretion from the sebaceous glands.
5. Six inflammations of the skin are:
Atopic dermatitis: Atopic dermatitis is a rash. The redness, itching, and dehydration of the dermatitis make the condition worse. Use of humidifiers and lotion can help keep the skin more hydrated. Topical corticosteroids can relieve the symptoms.
Dermatitis: An inflammatory condition of the skin, various forms of which include lesions, such as eczema, vesicles, or papules.
Eczema: An inflammatory, painful, itching disease of the skin, acute or chronic in nature, with dry or moist lesions. This should be referred to a physician. A common form of eczema, seborrheic dermatitis, mainly affects oily areas. Avoid contact and skin care treatments if a client has eczema.
Edema: Swelling from a fluid imbalance in the cells or from a response to injury or infection.
Psoriasis: A skin disease characterized by red patches covered with white-silver scales. Caused by an overproliferation of skin cells that replicate too fast. Psoriasis is usually found in patches on the scalp, elbows, knees, chest, and lower back. If patches are irritated, bleeding can occur. Psoriasis is not contagious buy can be spread by irritating the affected area.
Rosacea: An inflammation for the skin characterized by redness, dilation of blood vessels, and in severe cases the formation of papules and pustules. It is chronic congestion primarily on the cheeks and nose. The cause and treatment of rosacea is a primary concern of skin care today. The cause is unknown, but may be due to heredity, bacteria, mites, or fungus. Certain factors are known to aggravate the condition. Vascular dilation of the blood vessels makes it worse. Spicy foods, alcohol, caffeine, exposure to temperature extremes, heat, sun, and stress aggravate rosacea. Soothing and calming ingredients and treatments will help calm the skin and decrease the inflammation.
6. Rosacea is an inflammation for the skin characterized by redness, dilation of blood vessels, and in severe cases the formation of papules and pustules. It is chronic congestion primarily on the cheeks and nose. The cause and treatment of rosacea is a primary concern of skin care today. The cause is unknown, but may be due to heredity, bacteria, mites, or fungus. Certain factors are known to aggravate the condition. Vascular dilation of the blood vessels makes it worse. Spicy foods, alcohol, caffeine, exposure to temperature extremes, heat, sun, and stress aggravate rosacea. Soothing and calming ingredients and treatments will help calm the skin and decrease the inflammation.
7. Three types of Hyperpigmentation are:
Melasma: Pregnancy mask, often called melisma, is triggered by hormonal changes and may fade with time.
Stain: Brown or wine-colored discoloration. Stains occur after certain diseases or after moles, freckles, or liver spots disappear. A port wine stain is a birthmark, which is a vascular type of nevus.
Tan: Exposure to the sun causes tanning, a change in pigmentation sue to melanin production as a defense against UV rays that damage the skin.
8. Hypertrophy is an abnormal growth; many are benign, or harmless.
9. Three types of skin cancer are:
Basal Cell carcinoma: most common and the least severe type of carcinoma. It often appears as light pearly nodules. Sometimes blood vessels run through the nodules. Basal cells do not spread as easily as squamous or melanoma cells. They can be easily removed by surgery or other medical procedures.
Squamous cell carcinoma: is a more serious condition than basal cell carcinoma. It is characterized by red or pink scaly papules or nodules. Sometimes they are characterized by open sores or crusty areas that do not heal and may bleed easily. Squamous cell carcinoma can spread to other areas of the body.
Malignant Melanoma: The most serious. Black or dark patches on the skin. It is the most deadly because it can spread throughout the body.
10. The system used to detect cancer is the ABCDE's.
11. Four types of contagious diseases are:
Bacterial Conjuctivitis: commonly called pinkeye; very contagious.
Herpes zoster: Shingles, a painful skin condition from the chickenpox virus; characterized by groups of blisters that form a rash.
Impetigo: A bacterial infection of the skin that often occurs in children; characterized by clusters of small blisters or crusty lesions filled with bacteria. It is extremely contagious.
Verruca: Warts. Hypertrophy of the papillae and epidermis caused by a virus. Infectious and contagious, verrucas can spread. Wear gloves and avoid contact with warts.
12. Some of the causes of acne include:
- clogged pores
- triggers including hormones, stress, cosmetics and skin care products, and foods.
- hormonal changes
- certain foods
Grade I: Minor breakouts, mostly open comedones, some closed comedones, and a few papules.
Grade II: Many closed comedones, more open comedones, and occasional papules and pustules.
Grade III: Red and inflamed, many comedones, papules and pustules.
Grade IV: Cystic acne. Cysts with comedones, papules, pustules, and inflammation are present. Scar formation from tissue damage is common.